Understanding the different Layers in Blockchain and How they work together

Understanding the different Layers in Blockchain and How they work together

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Glory Praise Emmanuel
·May 24, 2023·

5 min read

Table of contents

  • What is a Blockchain?
  • Layers of the Blockchain:
  • How Do All These Layers Work Together?
  • Conclusion

Blockchain technology has revolutionized various industries, especially decentralized finance (DeFi). When exploring projects in this domain, you might come across terminologies such as layer 1, layer 2, and so on. In this article, we will delve into each layer, providing examples and use cases, and understand how they work together to create a comprehensive blockchain ecosystem.

What is a Blockchain?

You might be wondering, "What is a blockchain?". A blockchain can be defined as a decentralized and transparent digital ledger that records and verifies transactions across multiple computers or nodes. It's like a digital database or a shared spreadsheet that securely stores information in a series of blocks that are linked together in a chain.

Let's consider a relatable example: Imagine that we want to raise funds for a friend to go to school abroad, and we want the process to be transparent and secure without using a centralized entity like a bank. Using blockchain technology, each person's transaction, like Peter donating $10 to this fundraiser, is grouped into a block and verified by a network of nodes. Once verified, the block is added to the chain, creating a permanent and unalterable record. Everyone in the network can see the transactions, ensuring transparency. Technologies like cryptography, etc., are used to make the whole system secure. This is a simple example of how the blockchain works.

Now that we know what the blockchain is, we can now explore the different layers of the blockchain

Layers of the Blockchain:

  • Layer 0:

    Layer 0 represents the foundational layer of the blockchain ecosystem, including core infrastructure and cross-chain operability protocols. This includes hardware components such as mining equipment or nodes, as well as the network protocols that enable communication and consensus among the nodes. Layer zero includes not only the hardware layer but also miners and validators.

In some contexts, the term "Layer 0" is used to refer to networks of blockchains or protocols that enable cross-chain interoperability. These protocols aim to facilitate communication and data transfer between different blockchains, allowing them to interact and share information securely.

For example, Polkadot is often considered a Layer 0 protocol because it provides a framework for creating and connecting multiple blockchains, known as parachains, into a unified network. Polkadot enables interoperability between these parachains, allowing them to communicate and exchange data.

Layer 0 does not focus on specific projects or use cases but instead emphasizes the underlying infrastructure of the blockchain.

Examples of Layer 0 blockchains include: Polkadot, Avalanche, Cardano, Cosmos, etc

  • Layer 1:

    Layer 1, also known as the base layer or protocol layer, refers to the core blockchain network itself. It comprises the fundamental blockchain protocols and architectures, including their consensus mechanisms and native cryptocurrencies. Layer 1 blockchains can validate and finalize transactions using their own networks. They have their own native token, also known as a coin, which is used to pay transaction fees. Layer 1 blockchains often prioritize decentralization, security, and immutability.

    Examples of Layer 1 blockchains include: Bitcoin, Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain, Solana, etc

  • Layer 2:

    Layer 2 blockchains are built to address scalability and efficiency challenges on top of Layer 1 blockchains. Layer 2 solutions can be categorized into two main types: off-chain and sidechain solutions.

    a. Off-chain solutions: Off-chain solutions enable the execution of transactions and smart contracts outside the main blockchain, reducing congestion and increasing transaction throughput. Examples of off-chain solutions include payment channels (e.g., Lightning Network for Bitcoin) and state channels (e.g., Raiden Network for Ethereum). These solutions facilitate faster and cheaper transactions while leveraging the security of the underlying Layer 1 blockchain.

    b. Sidechain solutions: Sidechains are independent blockchains connected to the main blockchain, allowing for greater flexibility and scalability. Sidechains enable specific use cases and applications without congesting the main blockchain. Examples of sidechain solutions include Polygon (formerly Matic) and Skale Network, which provide faster and lower-cost transactions for Ethereum-based dApps.

    Examples of Layer 2 include: Optimism, Arbitrum, Polygon, Lightning Network, etc

  • Layer 3:

    Layer 3 represents application-specific layers built on Layer 2 or directly on Layer 1 blockchains. These layers are designed to cater to specific industries or use cases. Layer 3 gives the layers below real-world applications outside of just transactions. The application layer unlocks the blockchain's full potential.

    Layer 3 solutions often involve the development of specialized protocols, APIs, and frameworks that enable seamless integration with the underlying blockchain layers. Use cases for Layer 3 can range from decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms, non-fungible token (NFT) marketplaces, supply chain solutions, identity management systems, and more. Now, you can create NFTs, swap your tokens, play games, and so much more.

    Examples of Layer 2 include: Uniswap, Interledger Protocol, etc

How Do All These Layers Work Together?

The layers in the blockchain ecosystem operate collaboratively to provide a robust and comprehensive infrastructure.

Layer 0 establishes the foundational infrastructure, including hardware and network protocols, to support the blockchain network, while Layer 1 provides the core blockchain network, enabling peer-to-peer transactions, smart contracts, and decentralized applications. It ensures the security, decentralization, and immutability of the blockchain.

Layer 2 solutions build upon Layer 1 to address scalability and efficiency challenges. Off-chain solutions, such as payment channels and state channels, allow for faster and cheaper transactions, while sidechain solutions provide independent blockchains for specific use cases.

Layer 3 focuses on application-specific layers that utilize the capabilities of Layer 2 or directly interact with Layer 1. These layers cater to industry or vertical-specific use cases, such as DeFi platforms, NFT marketplaces, and supply chain solutions.

These layers work collaboratively to create a comprehensive blockchain framework, ensuring security and decentralization and enabling specific use cases.


Understanding the different layers in the blockchain ecosystem is crucial for comprehending decentralized applications and Web3 projects. By working together, these layers create a comprehensive blockchain ecosystem with immense potential to revolutionize industries. Exploring and harnessing the capabilities of each layer will be vital to driving innovation and shaping the future of decentralized technologies.

Thanks for reading!

Till I come your way again,


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